Difference between revisions of "Networking section"

From SaruWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Reverted edits by 64.111.207.138 (Talk); changed back to last version by Saruman!)
m (added resolvconf section)
Line 43: Line 43:


'''B)''' You could create a script that sets the route(s), and put it in the directory ''/etc/network/if-up.d''. Since all scripts that reside there get called when any interface goes "up", your route setting script would be called when ''any'' interface comes up, including ''lo''. This in turn means that a script for setting a route that belongs with a particular interface, should check on invocation which is the interface that goes up. At this moment in time, we don't employ any such script, so no example here, but if you look at the existing scripts in ''/etc/network/if-up.d'' you'll see how other programmers have done this.
'''B)''' You could create a script that sets the route(s), and put it in the directory ''/etc/network/if-up.d''. Since all scripts that reside there get called when any interface goes "up", your route setting script would be called when ''any'' interface comes up, including ''lo''. This in turn means that a script for setting a route that belongs with a particular interface, should check on invocation which is the interface that goes up. At this moment in time, we don't employ any such script, so no example here, but if you look at the existing scripts in ''/etc/network/if-up.d'' you'll see how other programmers have done this.
==DNS resolution under Debian==
One headache you might encounter when configuring a Debian server is how to let every program know how to resolve DNS names. Before a program can connect to an external network resource (say, for example, a web server), it must have a means of converting DNS names (e.g. www.saruman.biz) into the corresponding IP addresses (e.g. 192.168.67.10). This process is called "name resolution". The need for name resolution means that every program needs to know about the available means by which to do this name resolution.
From the good old days comes the configuration file ''resolv.conf'', normally found in ''/etc''. It contains information about the nameservers to be used by the system, be they actual servers or lookup files. However, more and more programs have the need to dynamically modify the ''resolv.conf'' configuration file. This means that frequently they step on each other, and the ''resolv.conf'' file can become out-of-sync. The ''resolvconf'' program addresses this problem. It acts as an intermediary between programs that supply nameserver information (e.g. DHCP clients) and programs that use nameserver information (e.g. resolver).
When ''resolvconf'' is properly installed, the file ''/etc/resolv.conf'' is replaced by a symbolic link to ''/etc/resolvconf/run/resolv.conf'', and any resolver thus uses the dynamically generated resolver configuration file at ''/etc/resolvconf/run/resolv.conf''.
The ''resolvconf'' program is only necessary when a system has multiple programs that need to dynamically modify the nameserver information. In a simple system where the nameservers do not change often or are only changed by one program, the standard ''/etc/resolv.conf'' configuration file is adequate.

Revision as of 21:56, 20 October 2008

Routes under Debian

When you need to add a networking route, there generally are two ways to do it:

  1. manually adding a route at the command prompt: this means that the machine will "understand" the route for as long as it is running. However, when you reboot the machine, it will have "forgotten" the route. This is called a non-persistent route.
  2. adding a route to the networking configuration files, so that it will be in place regardless of reboots or network restarts. This is called a persistent route.

Manipulating non-persistent routes

From the days of yore, the venerable route command enables us to view, add, change and delete routes. Its most known use is for printing the current routing table:

#route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
192.168.70.0    212.214.172.50  255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 eth1
192.168.67.0    *               255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth0
212.214.172.0   *               255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth1
default         212.214.172.1   0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth1

The addition of -n makes sure the route command does not try to substitute DNS names for IP addresses it knows. The second most used incarnation of route lies in the addition of a route, as has happened in the previous example. The route was added to the routing table using something like this:

#route add -net 192.168.70.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 212.214.172.40

However, there is a newer command available to us, that gives us a bit more options (however, at the cost of losing the well-known output format): this is the ip command, which is part of the essential iproute2 package:

#ip route show
192.168.70.0/24 via 212.214.172.50 dev eth1  src 192.168.67.10
192.168.67.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.67.10
212.214.172.0/24 dev eth1  proto kernel  scope link  src 212.214.172.50
default via 212.214.172.1 dev eth1

This is the output from the same system as the previous example. However, we see something interesting here: "ip" is capable of adding extra information to the route, like the first line shows (it's using "via"). The addition of that particular route would go like this:

#ip route add 192.168.70.0/24 via 212.214.172.50 src 192.168.67.10

Ofcourse, being capable of adding routes means we also need to be capable of deleting them:

#route del -net 192.168.70.0 netmask 255.255.255.0
#ip route del 192.168.70.0/24

As you can see, we only need to specify the target of the route to delete, not the options.

Manipulating persistent routes

To make a route persistent across reboots, we need to enter them somewhere where they're saved. There are many possible routes available, but the two that fit Debian the most are the following:

A) You could add the route addition command to the /etc/network/interfaces file; let the command itself be preceeded with the keyword "up" to signal the networking scripts that the command must be executed when an interface is brought "up"; the line could look like this (just as the examples from the preceeding section):

# Internet interface
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp
up ip route add 192.168.70.0/24 via 212.214.172.50 src 192.168.67.10

Naturally, you could also use the route add command instead of the ip route add command, but we prefer ip. Note: it matters --where-- in the interfaces file you put this line: it should be put in the same stanza as the interface it operates on. In this example, the external interface of the server is 212.214.172.50, which belongs with interface eth1. Therefore, the "up" line appears in the stanza for eth1.

B) You could create a script that sets the route(s), and put it in the directory /etc/network/if-up.d. Since all scripts that reside there get called when any interface goes "up", your route setting script would be called when any interface comes up, including lo. This in turn means that a script for setting a route that belongs with a particular interface, should check on invocation which is the interface that goes up. At this moment in time, we don't employ any such script, so no example here, but if you look at the existing scripts in /etc/network/if-up.d you'll see how other programmers have done this.

DNS resolution under Debian

One headache you might encounter when configuring a Debian server is how to let every program know how to resolve DNS names. Before a program can connect to an external network resource (say, for example, a web server), it must have a means of converting DNS names (e.g. www.saruman.biz) into the corresponding IP addresses (e.g. 192.168.67.10). This process is called "name resolution". The need for name resolution means that every program needs to know about the available means by which to do this name resolution.

From the good old days comes the configuration file resolv.conf, normally found in /etc. It contains information about the nameservers to be used by the system, be they actual servers or lookup files. However, more and more programs have the need to dynamically modify the resolv.conf configuration file. This means that frequently they step on each other, and the resolv.conf file can become out-of-sync. The resolvconf program addresses this problem. It acts as an intermediary between programs that supply nameserver information (e.g. DHCP clients) and programs that use nameserver information (e.g. resolver).

When resolvconf is properly installed, the file /etc/resolv.conf is replaced by a symbolic link to /etc/resolvconf/run/resolv.conf, and any resolver thus uses the dynamically generated resolver configuration file at /etc/resolvconf/run/resolv.conf.

The resolvconf program is only necessary when a system has multiple programs that need to dynamically modify the nameserver information. In a simple system where the nameservers do not change often or are only changed by one program, the standard /etc/resolv.conf configuration file is adequate.